DIV Deutscher Industrieverlag GmbH / Vulkan-Verlag GmbH
https://www.di-verlag.de/de/Zeitschriften/HEAT-PROCESSING/2017/01

Zeitschrift heat processing - Ausgabe 01/2017

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Beschreibung

"HEAT PROCESSING" is the international magazine for the entire field of industrial

furnaces, heat treatment processes, the efficient use of energy in thermoprocessing systems,

as well as being the international forum for interchange of knowledge and experience

between heat-processing industry suppliers and users.


heat processing - Ausgabe 01 2017

heat processing - Ausgabe 01 2017


Process modelling in continuous aluminium strip heat treatment
FACHBEITRAG

Process modelling in continuous aluminium strip heat treatment

Autoren: Simon Künne / Tobias Mertens

Aluminium strip is used as a lightweighting material, mainly in automotive and aircraft manufacturing. In order to give it the necessary strength characteristics it is subjected to precipitation hardening. High cooling rates must be achieved in this context so that, on the one hand, the thermodynamically unstable state of the oversaturated solid solution can be produced. On the other hand, the cooling rate should not be higher than necessary so that strip deformation due to thermal stresses is minimized. This makes it highly important to control the process regime with maximum accuracy. Process modelling is an expedient solution here, given that the product temperature inside the furnace system is difficult and costly to measure and complex dependencies on current process variables exist, especially in the quench section.

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Electromagnetic-thermal coupled simulation of induction hardening for excavator chains

Electromagnetic-thermal coupled simulation of induction hardening for excavator chains

Autoren: Stefan Dappen / Michael Dawidowicz / Gerhard Reese

Complex workpieces and extensive prototypes require a special detailed engineering. This paper gives a brief overview about several process techniques which can be used in induction hardening and describes in detail an electromagnetic-thermal coupled simulation. The computational mechanical engineering with ANSYS 17.0 was done for a complex inductor geometry which was used to harden big excavator chains. The simulated inductor was built and installed in one of the flexible hardening machines of Härterei Reese Bochum GmbH where a chain was hardened and evaluated. These results were used to validate the simulation.

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Use of thermochemical data in inductive melting

Use of thermochemical data in inductive melting

Autor: Erwin Dötsch

Minimizing the energy consumed during inductive melting of metal alloys is an ongoing concern for plant constructors and operators. Surprisingly enough, little thought is given to the potential provided by the enthalpy of the melt in question. It is demonstrated below that the composition of the input materials has a considerable influence on the heat content of alloy melts and therefore on their energy consumption. Enthalpies for different input materials can be derived from tabular thermochemical data and these can be used in inductive melting. This particularly applies to the production of cast iron melts made from scrap steel and various silicon carriers and also to brass melts made from copper and zinc as feed components compared to input materials made of brass.

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Fluctuating natural gas qualities from the point of view of industrial end-users

Fluctuating natural gas qualities from the point of view of industrial end-users

Autoren: Jörg Leicher / Anne Giese / Ahmad Al-Halbouni / Rolf Albus / Klaus Görner

The issue of natural gas quality has become a much-discussed topic in recent years. There are many reasons: the liberalization and unbundling of gas trading, grid and storage operations, the European Commission’s initiative to create a common European gas quality standard (EN 16726), the increasing globalization of the international gas markets via LNG and the ongoing trend to feed regenerative gases such as biomethane or even possibly hydrogen from “power-to-gas” into the gas grids. Many of these developments are positive, but they will also confront end-users across all sectors with increasing local fluctuations of gas quality. There are still many open questions concerning the impact of locally fluctuating gas qualities and compositions, especially for sensitive applications and processes in thermal processing and chemical industries. An open-minded and fact-based discussion about the upcoming changes and their consequences for the gas market is required, to which all market partners should contribute.

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Rapid determination of the calorific value by means of a novel gas quality sensor

Rapid determination of the calorific value by means of a novel gas quality sensor

Autoren: Achim Zajc / Thomas Ryll

The gas quality in the German gas transmission and distribution network varies already considerably. The dynamics of the gas quality changes will increase for various reasons. One reason is the dry-up of traditional sources and the increased supply of gas from unconventional sources. The market space switching from L-gas to H-gas contributes to this, too. These trends require a fast and reliable determination of the calorific value. Here, the following article aims to provide a solution.

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E-H mode transition of an inductively coupled plasma torch at atmospheric pressure

E-H mode transition of an inductively coupled plasma torch at atmospheric pressure

Autoren: Guy Chichignoud / Yves Delannoy / François Cocco / Pascal Rivat / Luigi Natale

Inductively coupled plasma torches need high ignition voltages for the E–H mode transition and are therefore difficult to operate. In order to reduce the ignition voltage of an RF plasma torch with a metallic confinement tube the E–H mode transition was studied. A spark generator was used to initiate an arc and the E–H mode transition of the plasma was then filmed using a high-speed camera. The electrical potential of the metallic confinement tube was measured using a high-voltage probe. It was found that an arc between the grounded injector and the metallic confinement tube is maintained by the electric field (E-mode). The transition to H-mode occurred at high magnetic fields when the arc formed a loop. An equivalent circuit for the set-up is proposed in order to assess the relative importance of the forces involved in the curvature of the arc (Lorentz force and drag force). As a result, the ignition voltage could be significantly reduced by connecting the metallic confinement tube with a capacitor to the RF generator. Consequently, conditions to ignite an inductive plasma at atmospheric pressure operating a solid state power source can be achieved.

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