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Zeitschrift 3R - Special 1/2017

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3R - Special 1 2017

3R - Special 1 2017


Fracture propagation prevention on CO2 pipelines
FACHBEITRAG

Fracture propagation prevention on CO2 pipelines

Full scale experimental testing and verification approach

Autoren: Massimo Di Biagio / Antonio Lucci / Elisabetta Mecozzi / Carlo M. Spinelli

CO2 pipeline transportation is becoming increasingly important as the following schemes worldwide are moving from pilot to demonstration phases: Enhanced Hydrocarbon Recovery (EHR), Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and Exploitation of Natural Gas Fields rich in CO2. In particular the important safety and risk discriminators emerging in pipelines transporting anthropogenic CO2 service are: effect of contaminants & impurities, volume transported that forces the use of larger diameter pipelines and longer distances with several crossings of high-hazardous areas. All these factors have a dramatic impact on fracture propagation arrest in case of pipeline failure caused by a critical defect (corrosion, third part damage, construction defect, etc.). The most catastrophic type of pipeline failure is running fracture, potentially involving rapid „unzip” of the pipeline up to several hundred meters long, causing the release of large fluid amount in a short time span. For natural gas there’s a long lasting experience and consolidated Know How; the method named “Battelle Two Curve” (BTC) was the first developed to express the criterion for predicting the minimum toughness required for having an arrest in case of long shear running fracture propagation by comparing the fluid decompression wave velocity and crack propagation velocity. It’s well known the susceptibility to long running shear fracture of any pipeline transportation system involving high pressure gases, dense phase fluids, two phase fluids or high vapor pressure liquids as Carbon Dioxide. In this context the RFCS project named SARCO2 „Requirements for Safe and Reliable CO2 Transportation Pipeline”, was lunched with the support of EPRG and DNV GL. The project was aimed at contributing to the pipeline design in order to assure the long-term integrity and included a full scale testing campaign on CO2 pipeline as part of the fracture propagation prevention programme. This paper presents such activity which involved EN 10208-2 L450 24” outside diameter, 12.5- 13.7 mm wall thickness pipes, with upper shelf Charpy V-notch impact energy (toughness) up to a maximum of 320 J coming from different metallurgic routes and the use of composite crack arrestors.

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Innovative solution for water injection pipes in secondary oil recovery

Innovative solution for water injection pipes in secondary oil recovery

Autoren: Tim Dally / Ralf Nötzel / Kerstin Weinberg / Hans-Jürgen Kocks / Juri Rosen

Cement mortar lined steel pipe made up with slip welding joints was subjected to FEM simulation and laboratory tests to determine its mechanical loadability in the transportation of oil/water mixes encountered in secondary oil recovery. The criteria examined also include combined loads of bending stress and internal pressure as involved in pipe-laying and under service conditions.

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Pipe Features Identified during Inline Inspection using MFL Pigs

Pipe Features Identified during Inline Inspection using MFL Pigs

Autoren: Susanne Höhler / Hossein Karbasian / Johannes Brückner

A safe and economical operation of pipelines requires extensive integrity tests. For that purpose pig inspections have proved to be an efficient tool for the systematic analysis of pipeline integrity in recent years. In particular for detection of corrosion based wall thickness reduction, magnetic flux leakage tools (MFL) are commonly used. Modern MFL pigs detect wall thickness reductions with high accuracy and deviations of small amount. Line pipe material is delivered by pipe manufacturers who have to fulfill specifications. During the pipe manufacturing process certain cosmetic repairs are permitted in the tolerance frame of technical delivery conditions. Mill made features/repairs are examined and registered by the pipe supplier. Once in operation, in-line inspections (ILI) of the pipeline are carried out. In some cases, mill made features and possible repairs as previously accepted in the mill, cannot be identified in the sequel of assessments based upon MFL data. Signals where the discrimination between mill related defects (e.g. grindings) and corrosion based wall thickness reduction is not possible, lead to a need of further investigations regarding a certain characterization of these indications. Those actions (e.g. excavation and nondestructive tests) are often time and cost intensive. In the frame of a research project within the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) a systematic collection of structural defects has been carried out, which are related to the line pipe manufacturing process of high strength steel tubes and which are possibly able to cause indications during inline inspection. The first part of the study presents an overview of typical defect types, which are classified as common for specific tube types by literature. Secondly, the results of a voluntary questionnaire to the EPRG members are summarized. The questionnaire was distributed to gather data in the range from manufacturing up to the operating conditions of onshore-pipelines. This was done for pipe manufacturers and for pipeline operators. The extracted database shows a range of MFL inspection results in comparison with further examination on the excavated pipe at these positions, in particular for cases, where mill related defects were found.

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Assessing the Feasibility of Asset Service Life Extension: the Benefits of MFL-A Ultra over Conventional MFL-A Technology

Assessing the Feasibility of Asset Service Life Extension: the Benefits of MFL-A Ultra over Conventional MFL-A Technology

Autor: Steve Cromwell

Since the initial introduction of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection tools in the early 1970s, pipeline inline inspection (ILI) technology has played a significant role in the management of pipeline integrity. In light of the increasing amount of legislative requirements which have been placed upon the oil and gas industry in recent years, coupled with public pressure, there is growing expectation for operators to define and maintain an effective asset integrity management system, in which ILI will continue to play a key role. In the years since MFL was introduced there have been significant developments in the field of pipeline ILI, and several different ILI technologies are now available to an operator for the purpose of determining the condition of their pipeline. Among these are ultrasonic (UT) and electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) technologies. However, despite the introduction of these new technologies, the “original”, i.e. axially orientated MFL technology, still plays a significant role in the inspection industry. MFL technology has been under continuous development, leading to significant step changes in the resolution and quality of the data captured. The latest developments have led to a major improvement in axial field MFL technology (MFL-A), which can now provide ultra-high-resolution data (MFL-A Ultra).

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Studying the Possibility of Long-Term Operation of Pipes with Insignificant SCC

Studying the Possibility of Long-Term Operation of Pipes with Insignificant SCC

Autoren: A.B. Arabey / O.N. Melekhin / O.V. Burutin / I.V. Ryakhovskikh / R.I. Bogdanov / P.V. Abrosimov / M. Steiner / U. Marewski

BIL – a shift of paradigm for construction inquiries

BIL – a shift of paradigm for construction inquiries

A plea to centralize digging requests

Autor: Jens Focke

In macroeconomic terms, the cost of compensating damage to pipeline and cables caused by construction work amounts to an estimated € 2 billion per annum. Much of this damage is due to a lack of information on the location of pipeline/ cables during the site investigation phase prior to the commencement of construction. Indeed, both building contractors and pipeline/cable/cable operators seeking to obtain such information will often find that identifying pipeline/cable routes and their operators is far from easy. An all-digital process available online can go a long way to simplify such inquiries, contributing to the safety of all the players involved. The following report describes the current situation and requirements, and provides a proposal based on recent operative experience in this field.

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Effective repair of defects in pipelines

Effective repair of defects in pipelines

A research report by DGMK e.V. summarises the repair methods available on the market and analyses which methods work best to eliminate defects under various conditions.

Autoren: Markus Rieder / Robert Müller / Hans-Joachim de la Camp

 
 

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